The Leiden Ranking
- Largest number of publications (P)
- Number of citations per publication (CPP)
- Total number of publications multiplied by the relative impact in the given field (P*CPP/FCSm)
- The number of citations per publication divided by the average impact in the given field (CPP/FCSm)
Indicator 4 is the crown indicator because standardisation using the impact of publications in the given field prevents non-generalist universities such as engineering schools or technical universities from being penalised by the citations-per-publication calculation.
Read more: Leiden ranking list